Lumbar spinal stenosis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment (meta-analysis of literature data)

Authors

  • Ia. V. Fishchenko SI “The Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics” by NAMS of Ukraine
  • L. D. Kravchuk SI “The Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics” by NAMS of Ukraine
  • O. A. Perepechay SI “The Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics” by NAMS of Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31636/pmjua.v3i1.83

Keywords:

lumbar spinal stenosis, epidural injections, degenerative scoliosis, degenerative spondylolisthesis

Abstract

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a disease in which degenerated discs, ligamentum flavum, facet joints, while aging, lead to a narrowing of the space around the neurovascular structures of the spine. This article presents a meta-analysis of literature data on epidemiology, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and various types of treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Katz JN, Harris MB. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2008 Feb 21;358(8):818–25. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmcp0708097

Deyo RA. Treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: a balancing act. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2010 Jul;10(7):625–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2010.05.006

Genevay S, Atlas SJ, Katz JN. Variation in Eligibility Criteria From Studies of Radiculopathy due to a Herniated Disc and of Neurogenic Claudication due to Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2010 Apr;35(7):803–11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181bc9454

Deyo RA, Gray DT, Kreuter W, Mirza S, Martin BI. United States Trends in Lumbar Fusion Surgery for Degenerative Conditions. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2005 Jun;30(12):1441–5. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000166503.37969.8a

Deyo RA. Trends, Major Medical Complications, and Charges Associated With Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Older Adults. JAMA [Internet]. American Medical Association (AMA); 2010 Apr 7;303(13):1259. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.338

ECRI Health Technology Assessment Group. Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Summary. 2001 Mar. In: AHRQ Evidence Report Summaries. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 1998-2005. 32. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11855

Kalichman L, Cole R, Kim DH, Li L, Suri P, Guermazi A, et al. Spinal stenosis prevalence and association with symptoms: the Framingham Study. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2009 Jul;9(7):545–50. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2009.03.005

Deyo RA. Treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: a balancing act. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2010 Jul;10(7):625–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2010.05.006

Arbuthnot Lane W. Case of spondylolisthesis associated with progressive paraplegia; laminectomy. The Lancet [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 1893 Apr;141(3635):991–2. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(02)03969-7

Verbiest H. A Radicular Syndrome From Developmental Narrowing of the Lumbar Vertebral Canal. SAS Journal [Internet]. International Journal of Spine Surgery; 2009 Jun;3(2):77–84. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1935-9810(09)70010-6

Watters WC, Baisden J, Gilbert TJ, Kreiner S, Resnick DK, Bono CM, et al. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: an evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2008 Mar;8(2):305–10. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.033

Ciricillo SF, Weinstein PR. Lumbar spinal stenosis. West J Med. 1993 Feb;158(2):171-7.

Chad DA. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Neurologic Clinics [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2007 May;25(2):407–18. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2007.01.003

Arbit E, Pannullo S. Lumbar Stenosis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2001 Mar;384:137–43. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00003086-200103000-00016

Fritz JM, Delitto A, Welch WC, Erhard RE. Lumbar spinal stenosis: A review of current concepts in evaluation, management, and outcome measurements. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 1998 Jun;79(6):700–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-9993(98)90048-x

Schönström N, Lindahl S, Willén J, Hansson T. Dynamic changes in the dimensions of the lumbar spinal canal: An experimental study in vitro. Journal of Orthopaedic Research [Internet]. Wiley; 1989 Jan;7(1):115–21. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.1100070116

Penning L. Functional pathology of lumbar spinal stenosis. Clinical Biomechanics [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 1992 Feb;7(1):3–17. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/0268-0033(92)90002-l

Amundsen T, Weber H, Nordal HJ, Magnaes B, Abdelnoor M, Lilleås F. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Conservative or Surgical Management? Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2000 Jun;25(11):1424–36. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200006010-00016

Examination Findings and Self-Reported Walking Capacity in Patients With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Physical Therapy [Internet]. Oxford University Press (OUP); 2001 Jul 1; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/81.7.1296

Lin R-M. Disability and Walking Capacity in Patients With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Association With Sensorimotor Function, Balance, and Functional Performance. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy [Internet]. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT); 2005 Apr; Available from: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2005.1613

Binder DK, Schmidt MH, Weinstein PR. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Seminars in Neurology [Internet]. Georg Thieme Verlag KG; 2002;22(2):157–66. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-36539

LEE CK, RAUSCHNING W, GLENN W. Lateral Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis: Classification, Pathologic Anatomy and Surgical Decompression. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1988 Mar;13(3):313–20. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198803000-00015

Tomkins-Lane CC, Battié MC. Predictors of objectively measured walking capacity in people with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation [Internet]. IOS Press; 2013 Sep 27;26(4):345–52. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3233/bmr-130390

JOHNSSON K-E, ROSÉN I, UDÉN A. Neurophysiologic Investigation of Patients with Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1987 Jun;12(5):483–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-198706000-00012

Atlas SJ, Delitto A. Spinal Stenosis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2006 Feb;443(:):198–207. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000198722.70138.96

Porter RW. Spinal Stenosis and Neurogenic Claudication. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1996 Sep;21(17):2046–52. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199609010-00024

Nadeau M, Rosas-Arellano MP, Gurr KR, Bailey SI, Taylor DC, Grewal R, et al. The reliability of differentiating neurogenic claudication from vascular claudication based on symptomatic presentation. Canadian Journal of Surgery [Internet]. Joule Inc.; 2013 Dec 1;56(6):372–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1503/cjs.016512

Conway J, Tomkins CC, Haig AJ. Walking assessment in people with lumbar spinal stenosis: capacity, performance, and self-report measures. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2011 Sep;11(9):816–23. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2010.10.019

Katz JN, Dalgas M, Stucki G, Katz NP, Bayley J, Fossel AH, et al. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis diagnostic value of the history and physical examination. Arthritis & Rheumatism [Internet]. Wiley; 1995 Sep;38(9):1236–41. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/art.1780380910

Tomkins-Lane CC, Conway J, Hepler C, Haig AJ. Changes in Objectively Measured Physical Activity (Performance) After Epidural Steroid Injection for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2012 Nov;93(11):2008–14. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.05.014

Whitehurst M, Brown LE, Eidelson SG, D’Angelo A. Functional mobility performance in an elderly population with lumbar spinal stenosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2001 Apr;82(4):464–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2001.20828

Tomkins-Lane CC, Holz SC, Yamakawa KS, Phalke VV, Quint DJ, Miner J, et al. Predictors of Walking Performance and Walking Capacity in People With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, Low Back Pain, and Asymptomatic Controls. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2012 Apr;93(4):647–53. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2011.09.023

Benoist M. The natural history of lumbar degenerative spinal stenosis. Joint Bone Spine [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2002 Oct;69(5):450–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1297-319x(02)00429-3

Hurri H, Slatis P, Soini J, Tallroth K, Alaranta H, Laine T, et al. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Journal of Spinal Disorders [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1998 Apr;11(2):110-115. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00002517-199804000-00003

Johnsson K-E, Rosén I, Udén A. The natural course of lumbar spinal stenosis. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica [Internet]. Informa UK Limited; 1993 Jan;64(sup251):67–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3109/17453679309160122

Minamide A, Yoshida M, Maio K. The natural clinical course of lumbar spinal stenosis: a longitudinal cohort study over a minimum of 10years. Journal of Orthopaedic Science [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2013 Sep;18(5):693–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00776-013-0435-9

Haig AJ, Tong HC, Yamakawa KSJ, Parres C, Quint DJ, Chiodo A, et al. Predictors of Pain and Function in Persons With Spinal Stenosis, Low Back Pain, and No Back Pain. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2006 Dec;31(25):2950–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000247791.97032.1e

Evans JG. Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication. BMJ [Internet]. BMJ; 1964 Oct 17;2(5415):985–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5415.985

Watanabe R, Parke WW. Vascular and neural pathology of lumbosacral spinal stenosis. Journal of Neurosurgery [Internet]. Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG); 1986 Jan;64(1):64–70. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1986.64.1.0064

OOI Y, MITA F, SATOH Y. Myeloscopic Study on Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis with Special Reference to Intermittent Claudication. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1990 Jun;15(6):544–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199006000-00021

PORTER RW, WARD D. Cauda Equina Dysfunction. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1992 Jan;17(1):9–15. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199201000-00002

Binder DK, Schmidt MH, Weinstein PR. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Seminars in Neurology [Internet]. Georg Thieme Verlag KG; 2002;22(2):157–66. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-36539

Genevay S, Atlas SJ. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2010 Apr;24(2):253–65. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2009.11.001

Andreisek G, Hodler J, Steurer J. Uncertainties in the Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Radiology [Internet]. Radiological Society of North America (RSNA); 2011 Dec;261(3):681–4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.11111086

Prodan AI, Perepechay OA. Patogeneticheskaya svyaz klinicheskih proyavlenij poyasnichnogo spinalnogo stenoza so stenozom nizhnej poloj veny (Pathogenetic connection of clinical manifestations of lumbar spinal stenosis with stenosis of the inferior vena cava). Ortopediya, travmatologiya i protezirovanie. 2010;2:35–9. (In Russian)

Haig AJ. Diagnosis and Management of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. JAMA [Internet]. American Medical Association (AMA); 2010 Jan 6;303(1):71. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1946

Suri P, Rainville J, Kalichman L, Katz JN. Does This Older Adult With Lower Extremity Pain Have the Clinical Syndrome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis? JAMA [Internet]. American Medical Association (AMA); 2010 Dec 15;304(23):2628. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1833

De Schepper EIT, Overdevest GM, Suri P, Peul WC, Oei EHG, Koes BW, et al. Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2013 Apr;38(8):E469–E481. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e31828935ac

Barz T, Melloh M, Staub L, Roeder C, Lange J, Smiszek F-G, et al. The diagnostic value of a treadmill test in predicting lumbar spinal stenosis. European Spine Journal [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2008 Feb 8;17(5):686–90. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-008-0593-1

Deen HG, Zimmerman RS, Lyons MK, McPhee MC, Verheijde JL, Lemens SM. Measurement of exercise tolerance on the treadmill in patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis: a useful indicator of functional status and surgical outcome. Journal of Neurosurgery [Internet]. Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG); 1995 Jul;83(1):27–30. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1995.83.1.0027

Deen HG, Zimmerman RS, Lyons MK, McPhee MC, Verheijde JL, Lemens SM. Use of the Exercise Treadmill to Measure Baseline Functional Status and Surgical Outcome in Patients With Severe Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1998 Jan;23(2):244–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199801150-00019

Herno A, Saari T, Suomalainen O, Airaksinen O. The Degree of Decompressive Relief and Its Relation to Clinical Outcome in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1999 May;24(10):1010–4. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199905150-00015

Jensen OH, Schmidt-Olsen S. A new functional test in the diagnostic evaluation of neurogenic intermittent claudication. Clinical Rheumatology [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 1989 Sep;8(3):363–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02030349

Tenhula J, Lenke LG, Bridwell KH, Gupta P, Riew D. Prospective Functional Evaluation of the Surgical Treatment of Neurogenic Claudication in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Journal of Spinal Disorders [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2000 Aug;13(4):276–82. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00002517-200008000-00002

Tomkins CC, Battié MC, Rogers T, Jiang H, Petersen S. A Criterion Measure of Walking Capacity in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and Its Comparison With a Treadmill Protocol. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2009 Oct;34(22):2444–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181b03fc8

Kim Y-S, Park S-J, Oh I-S, Kwan J-Y. The Clinical Effect of Gait Load Test in Two Level Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Asian Spine Journal [Internet]. Asian Spine Journal (ASJ); 2009;3(2):96. Available from: https://doi.org/10.4184/asj.2009.3.2.96

Kalff R, Ewald C, Waschke A, Gobisch L, Hopf C. Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Older People. Deutsches Aerzteblatt Online [Internet]. Deutscher Arzte-Verlag GmbH; 2013 Sep 13; Available from: https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2013.0613

Haig AJ, Tong HC, Yamakawa KSJ, Quint DJ, Hoff JT, Chiodo A, et al. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Electrodiagnostic Testing for the Clinical Syndrome of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2005 Dec;30(23):2667–76. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000188400.11490.5f

Haig AJ, Tong HC, Yamakawa KS, Quint DJ, Hoff JT, Chiodo A, et al. Spinal Stenosis, Back Pain, or No Symptoms at All? A Masked Study Comparing Radiologic and Electrodiagnostic Diagnoses to the Clinical Impression. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2006 Jul;87(7):897–903. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2006.03.016

Yagci I, Gunduz OH, Ekinci G, Diracoglu D, Us O, Akyuz G. The Utility of Lumbar Paraspinal Mapping in the Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2009 Oct;88(10):843–51. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/phm.0b013e3181b333a9

Kuittinen P, Sipola P, Aalto TJ, Määttä S, Parviainen A, Saari T, et al. Correlation of lateral stenosis in MRI with symptoms, walking capacity and EMG findings in patients with surgically confirmed lateral lumbar spinal canal stenosis. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders [Internet]. Springer Nature; 2014 Jul 23;15(1). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-15-247

De Graaf I, Prak A, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Thomas S, Peul W, Koes B. Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2006 May;31(10):1168–76. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000216463.32136.7b

Mamisch N, Brumann M, Hodler J, Held U, Brunner F, Steurer J. Radiologic Criteria for the Diagnosis of Spinal Stenosis: Results of a Delphi Survey. Radiology [Internet]. Radiological Society of North America (RSNA); 2012 Jul;264(1):174–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.12111930

Steurer J, Roner S, Gnannt R, Hodler J. Quantitative radiologic criteria for the diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic literature review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2011 Jul 28;12(1). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-12-175

Cheung JP-Y, Samartzis D, Shigematsu H, Cheung KM-C. Defining Clinically Relevant Values for Developmental Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2014 Jun;39(13):1067–76. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0000000000000335

Wassenaar M, van Rijn RM, van Tulder MW, Verhagen AP, van der Windt DAWM, Koes BW, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing lumbar spinal pathology in adult patients with low back pain or sciatica: a diagnostic systematic review. European Spine Journal [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2011 Sep 16;21(2):220–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-011-2019-8

Lurie JD, Tosteson AN, Tosteson TD, Carragee E, Carrino J, Kaiser J, et al. Reliability of Readings of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2008 Jun;33(14):1605–10. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181791af3

Lee S, Lee JW, Yeom JS, Kim K-J, Kim H-J, Chung SK, et al. A Practical MRI Grading System for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis. American Journal of Roentgenology [Internet]. American Roentgen Ray Society; 2010 Apr;194(4):1095–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.09.2772

Schizas C, Theumann N, Burn A, Tansey R, Wardlaw D, Smith FW, et al. Qualitative Grading of Severity of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Based on the Morphology of the Dural Sac on Magnetic Resonance Images. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2010 Oct;35(21):1919–24. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181d359bd

Barz T, Melloh M, Staub LP, Lord SJ, Lange J, Röder CP, et al. Nerve Root Sedimentation Sign. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2010 Apr;35(8):892–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181c7cf4b

Moses RA, Zhao W, Staub LP, Melloh M, Barz T, Lurie JD. Is the Sedimentation Sign Associated With Spinal Stenosis Surgical Treatment Effect in SPORT? Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2015 Feb;40(3):129–36. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0000000000000672

Tomkins-Lane CC, Quint DJ, Gabriel S, Melloh M, Haig AJ. Nerve Root Sedimentation Sign for the Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2013 Nov;38(24):E1554–E1560. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3182a8c2da

Andreisek G, Imhof M, Wertli M, Winklhofer S, Pfirrmann CWA, Hodler J, et al. A Systematic Review of Semiquantitative and Qualitative Radiologic Criteria for the Diagnosis of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. American Journal of Roentgenology [Internet]. American Roentgen Ray Society; 2013 Nov;201(5):W735–W746. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.12.10163

Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, Patronas NJ, Wiesel SW. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1990 Mar;72(3):403–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-199072030-00013

Amundsen T, Weber H, Lilleas F, Nordal HJ, Abdelnoor M, Magnaes B. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1995 May;20(10):1178–86. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199505150-00013

Geisser ME, Haig AJ, Tong HC, Yamakawa KSJ, Quint DJ, Hoff JT, et al. Spinal Canal Size and Clinical Symptoms Among Persons Diagnosed With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. The Clinical Journal of Pain [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2007 Nov;23(9):780–5. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/ajp.0b013e31815349bf

Herno A, Airaksinen O, Saari T. Computed Tomography After Laminectomy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1994 Sep;19(17):1975–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199409000-00019

Lohman CM, Tallroth K, Kettunen JA, Lindgren K-A. Comparison of Radiologic Signs and Clinical Symptoms of Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2006 Jul;31(16):1834–40. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000227370.65573.ac

Ammendolia C, Stuber KJ, Rok E, Rampersaud R, Kennedy CA, Pennick V, et al. Nonoperative treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Wiley; 2013 Aug 30; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd010712

Schneider M, Ammendolia C, Murphy D, Glick R, Piva S, Hile E, et al. Comparison of non-surgical treatment methods for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies [Internet]. Springer Nature; 2014 May 10;22(1). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-709x-22-19

Tomkins-Lane CC, Lafave LM, Parnell JA, Krishnamurthy A, Rempel J, Macedo LG, et al. The spinal stenosis pedometer and nutrition lifestyle intervention (SSPANLI) randomized controlled trial protocol. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders [Internet]. Springer Nature; 2013 Nov 14;14(1). Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-14-322

Tomkins-Lane CC. The Spinal Stenosis Pedometer and Nutrition Lifestyle Intervention (SSPANLI) Pilot Study. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2013 Sep;13(9):S24–S25. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2013.07.090

Ammendolia C, Stuber K, de Bruin LK, Furlan AD, Kennedy CA, Rampersaud YR, et al. Nonoperative Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis With Neurogenic Claudication. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2012 May;37(10):E609–E616. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e318240d57d

Coronado-Zarco R, Cruz-Medina E, Arellano-Hernández A, Chavez-Arias D, León-Hernández SR. Effectiveness of Calcitonin in Intermittent Claudication Treatment of Patients With Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2009 Oct;34(22):E818–E822. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181afe60a

Podichetty VK, Segal AM, Lieber M, Mazanec DJ. Effectiveness of Salmon Calcitonin Nasal Spray in the Treatment of Lumbar Canal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2004 Nov;29(21):2343–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000143807.78082.7f

Peng K, Chen L, Peng J, Xing F, Xiang Z. Effects of calcitonin on lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(2):2536-44.

Van Tulder M, Scholten R, Koes B, Deyo R. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low-back pain. van Tulder M, editor. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2000 Apr 24; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd000396

Macedo LG, Hum A, Kuleba L, Mo J, Truong L, Yeung M, et al. Physical Therapy Interventions for Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review. Physical Therapy [Internet]. Oxford University Press (OUP); 2013 Jul 25;93(12):1646–60. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20120379

Fritz JM, Lurie JD, Zhao W, Whitman JM, Delitto A, Brennan GP, et al. Associations between physical therapy and long-term outcomes for individuals with lumbar spinal stenosis in the SPORT study. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2014 Aug;14(8):1611–21. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2013.09.044

Delitto A, Piva SR, Moore CG, Welch WC. Surgery Versus Nonsurgical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Annals of Internal Medicine [Internet]. American College of Physicians; 2015 Sep 1;163(5):397. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7326/l15-5129-4

Ammendolia C, Stuber KJ, Rok E, Rampersaud R, Kennedy CA, Pennick V, et al. Nonoperative treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis with neurogenic claudication. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Wiley; 2013 Aug 30; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd010712

Wu X, Liu K, Liu P-C, Liu R, Cai M. Steroid for epidural injection in spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Design, Development and Therapy [Internet]. Dove Medical Press Ltd.; 2015 Jan;707. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2147/dddt.s78070

Friedly JL, Comstock BA, Turner JA, Heagerty PJ, Deyo RA, Sullivan SD, et al. A Randomized Trial of Epidural Glucocorticoid Injections for Spinal Stenosis. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2014 Jul 3;371(1):11–21. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa1313265

Multistate Outbreak of Fungal Infection Associated With Injection of Methylprednisolone Acetate Solution From a Single Compounding Pharmacy—United States, 2012. Annals of Emergency Medicine [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2013 Mar;61(3):364–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.12.012

Chou R, Hashimoto R, Friedly J. Epidural Corticosteroid Injections for Radiculopathy and Spinal Stenosis. Annals of Internal Medicine [Internet]. American College of Physicians; 2016 May 3;164(9):635. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7326/l15-0563

Roy IV. Minimalno invazivnoe lechenie bolevogo sindroma pri poyasnichnom spinalnom stenoze (Minimal invasive treatment of pain syndrome with lumbar spinal stenosis). Litopis travmatologiyi ta ortopediyi. 2017;1(2):75–80. (In Russian)

Fishchenko YV. Epiduralnyj adgezioliz : opyt primeneniya u bolnyh s poyasnichnym spinalnym stenozom ( Epidural Adhesiolysis: Experience in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis). Visnik ortopediyi, travmatologiyi ta protezuvannya. 2014;4:36–41. (In Russian)

Stuber K, Sajko S, Kristmanson K. Chiropractic treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis: a review of the literature. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2009 Jun;8(2):77–85. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2009.02.001

Cambron JA, Schneider M, Dexheimer JM, Iannelli G, Chang M, Terhorst L, et al. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Flexion-Distraction Dosage for Chiropractic Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2014 Jul;37(6):396–406. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2014.05.005

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet]. York (UK): Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK); 1995-. Acupuncture for lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2013. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK164368/

Sengupta DK, Herkowitz HN. Lumbar spinal stenosis. Orthopedic Clinics of North America [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2003 Apr;34(2):281–95. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0030-5898(02)00069-x

Ciol MA, Deyo RA, Howell E, Kreif S. An Assessment of Surgery for Spinal Stenosis: Time Trends, Geographic Variations, Complications, and Reoperations. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society [Internet]. Wiley; 1996 Mar;44(3):285–90. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1996.tb00915.x

Martin BI, Tosteson AN, Lurie JD, Mirza SK, Goodney PR, Dzebisashvili N. Variation in the care of surgical conditions: spinal stenosis. A Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care Series. 2014;603:1-48.

Weinstein JN, Lurie JD, Olson PR, Bronner KK, Fisher ES. United States’ Trends and Regional Variations in Lumbar Spine Surgery: 1992–2003. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2006 Nov;31(23):2707–14. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000248132.15231.fe

Kreiner DS, Shaffer WO, Baisden JL, Gilbert TJ, Summers JT, Toton JF, et al. An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (update). The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2013 Jul;13(7):734–43. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2012.11.059

Resnick DK, Watters WC, Mummaneni PV, Dailey AT, Choudhri TF, Eck JC, et al. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 10: Lumbar fusion for stenosis without spondylolisthesis. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine [Internet]. Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG); 2014 Jul;21(1):62–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.4.spine14275

Jacobs WCH, Rubinstein SM, Koes B, van Tulder MW, Peul WC. Evidence for surgery in degenerative lumbar spine disorders. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2013 Oct;27(5):673–84. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2013.09.009

Overdevest GM, Jacobs W, Vleggeert-Lankamp C, Thomé C, Gunzburg R, Peul W. Effectiveness of posterior decompression techniques compared to conventional laminectomy for lumbar stenosis. Overdevest GM, editor. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012 Sep 12; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd010036

Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, Tosteson ANA, Blood E, Hanscom B, et al. Surgical versus Nonsurgical Therapy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2008 Feb 21;358(8):794–810. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa0707136

Pearson A, Blood E, Lurie J, Abdu W, Sengupta D, Frymoyer JF, et al. Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2011 Feb;36(3):219–29. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181d77c21

Long-term results of surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis: a randomised controlled trial. Slätis P, Malmivaara A, Heliövaara M, et al. Eur Spine J 2011 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]. The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2011 May;11(5):456. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2011.04.014

Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, Tosteson A, Blood E, Herkowitz H, et al. Surgical Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2010 Jun;35(14):1329–38. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181e0f04d

Manchikanti L, Singh V, Pampati V, Falco FJ, Hirsch JA. Comparison of the Efficacy of Caudal, Interlaminar, and Transforaminal Epidural Injections in Managing Lumbar Disc Herniation: Is One Method Superior to the Other? The Korean Journal of Pain [Internet]. Korean Pain Society (KAMJE); 2015;28(1):11. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2015.28.1.11

Malmivaara A, Slätis P, Heliövaara M, Sainio P, Kinnunen H, Kankare J, et al. Surgical or Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis? Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2007 Jan;32(1):1–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000251014.81875.6d

Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, Tosteson ANA, Blood E, Hanscom B, et al. Surgical versus Nonsurgical Therapy for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2008 Feb 21;358(8):794–810. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa0707136

Aalto TJ, Malmivaara A, Kovacs F, Herno A, Alen M, Salmi L, et al. Preoperative Predictors for Postoperative Clinical Outcome in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2006 Aug;31(18):E648–E663. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000231727.88477.da

Pearson A, Lurie J, Tosteson T, Zhao W, Abdu W, Weinstein JN. Who Should Have Surgery for Spinal Stenosis? Treatment Effect Predictors in SPORT. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2012 Oct;37(21):1791–802. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3182634b04

McGregor AH, Probyn K, Cro S, Doré CJ, Burton AK, Balagué F, et al. Rehabilitation Following Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2014 Jun;39(13):1044–54. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0000000000000355

Resnick DK, Watters WC, Mummaneni PV, Dailey AT, Choudhri TF, Eck JC, et al. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 10: Lumbar fusion for stenosis without spondylolisthesis. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine [Internet]. Journal of Neurosurgery Publishing Group (JNSPG); 2014 Jul;21(1):62–6. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3171/2014.4.spine14275

Kreiner DS, Shaffer WO, Baisden JL, Gilbert TJ, Summers JT, Toton JF, et al. An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (update). The Spine Journal [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2013 Jul;13(7):734–43. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2012.11.059

Carragee EJ. The Increasing Morbidity of Elective Spinal Stenosis Surgery. JAMA [Internet]. American Medical Association (AMA); 2010 Apr 7;303(13):1309. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.402

Lindsey DP, Swanson KE, Fuchs P, Hsu KY, Zucherman JF, Yerby SA. The Effects of an Interspinous Implant on the Kinematics of the Instrumented and Adjacent Levels in the Lumbar Spine. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2003 Oct;28(19):2192–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000084877.88192.8e

Richards JC, Majumdar S, Lindsey DP, Beaupré GS, Yerby SA. The Treatment Mechanism of an Interspinous Process Implant for Lumbar Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2005 Apr;30(7):744–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000157483.28505.e3

Schizas C, Pralong E, Tzioupis C, Kulik G. Interspinous Distraction in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2013 Nov;38(24):2113–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000435031.96058.f6

Zucherman JF, Hsu KY, Hartjen CA, Mehalic TF, Implicito DA, Martin MJ, et al. A prospective randomized multi-center study for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with the X STOP interspinous implant: 1-year results. European Spine Journal [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2004 Feb 1;13(1):22–31. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-003-0581-4

Zucherman JF, Hsu KY, Hartjen CA, Mehalic TF, Implicito DA, Martin MJ, et al. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Trial Evaluating the X STOP Interspinous Process Decompression System for the Treatment of Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2005 Jun;30(12):1351–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000166618.42749.d1

Lønne G, Johnsen LG, Aas E, Lydersen S, Andresen H, Rønning R, et al. Comparing Cost-effectiveness of X-Stop With Minimally Invasive Decompression in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2015 Apr;40(8):514–20. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0000000000000798

Strömqvist BH, Berg S, Gerdhem P, Johnsson R, Möller A, Sahlstrand T, et al. X-Stop Versus Decompressive Surgery for Lumbar Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2013 Aug;38(17):1436–42. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e31828ba413

Moojen WA, Arts MP, Jacobs WCH, van Zwet EW, van den Akker-van Marle ME, Koes BW, et al. Interspinous process device versus standard conventional surgical decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis: randomized controlled trial. BMJ [Internet]. BMJ; 2013 Nov 14;347(nov14 5):f6415–f6415. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f6415

Deyo RA, Martin BI, Ching A, Tosteson ANA, Jarvik JG, Kreuter W, et al. Interspinous Spacers Compared With Decompression or Fusion for Lumbar Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2013 May;38(10):865–72. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e31828631b8

Hong P, Liu Y, Li H. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety between Interspinous Process Distraction Device and Open Decompression Surgery in Treating Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Meta Analysis. Journal of Investigative Surgery [Internet]. Informa UK Limited; 2014 Jul 15;28(1):40–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.3109/08941939.2014.932474

Wu A-M, Zhou Y, Li Q-L, Wu X-L, Jin Y-L, Luo P, et al. Interspinous Spacer versus Traditional Decompressive Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Fehlings M, editor. PLoS ONE [Internet]. Public Library of Science (PLoS); 2014 May 8;9(5):e97142. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097142

Deer TR, Kapural L. New image-guided ultra-minimally invasive lumbar decompression method: the mild procedure. Pain Physician. 2010 Jan-Feb;13(1):35-41.

Brown LL. A Double-blind, Randomized, Prospective Study of Epidural Steroid Injection vs. The mild® Procedure in Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis. Pain Practice [Internet]. Wiley; 2012 Jan 25;12(5):333–41. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-2500.2011.00518.x

Kreiner DS, MacVicar J, Duszynski B, Nampiaparampil DE. The mild® Procedure: A Systematic Review of the Current Literature. Pain Medicine [Internet]. Oxford University Press (OUP); 2013 Dec 5;15(2):196–205. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/pme.12305

Kalichman L, Hunter DJ. Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. European Spine Journal [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2007 Nov 17;17(3):327–35. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-007-0543-3

Pearson A, Blood E, Lurie J, Tosteson T. SPORT SPINAL STENOSIS VERSUS DEGENERATIVE SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: COMPARISON OF BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS AND OUTCOMES. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2008 Aug;&NA;10. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000320169.68552.98

Weinstein JN, Lurie JD, Tosteson TD, Hanscom B, Tosteson ANA, Blood EA, et al. Surgical versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2007 May 31;356(22):2257–70. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa070302

Weinstein JN, Lurie JD, Tosteson TD, Hanscom B, Tosteson ANA, Blood EA, et al. Surgical versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. Massachusetts Medical Society; 2007 May 31;356(22):2257–70. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa070302

Herkowitz HN, Kurz LT. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis. A prospective study comparing decompression with decompression and intertransverse process arthrodesis. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1991 Jul;73(6):802–8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-199173060-00002

Eismont FJ, Norton RP, Hirsch BP. Surgical Management of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2014 Apr;22(4):203–13. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5435/jaaos-22-04-203

Abdu WA, Lurie JD, Spratt KF, Tosteson ANA, Zhao W, Tosteson TD, et al. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2009 Oct;34(21):2351–60. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3181b8a829

Fischgrund JS, Mackay M, Herkowitz HN, Brower R, Montgomery DM, Kurz LT. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis: a prospective, randomized study comparing decompressive laminectomy and arthrodesis with and without spinal instrumentation [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 1997 Dec;22(24):2807–12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199712150-00003

Kornblum MB, Fischgrund JS, Herkowitz HN, Abraham DA, Berkower DL, Ditkoff JS. Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis With Spinal Stenosis. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2004 Apr;29(7):726–33. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000119398.22620.92

Pearson AM, Lurie JD, Tosteson TD, Zhao W, Abdu WA, Weinstein JN. Who Should Undergo Surgery for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis? Treatment Effect Predictors in SPORT. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2013 Oct;38(21):1799–811. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/brs.0b013e3182a314d0

Mannion AF, Pittet V, Steiger F, Vader J-P, Becker H-J, et al. Development of appropriateness criteria for the surgical treatment of symptomatic lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (LDS). European Spine Journal [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2014 Apr 24;23(9):1903–17. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-014-3284-0

Wang G, Hu J, Liu X, Cao Y. Surgical treatments for degenerative lumbar scoliosis: a meta analysis. European Spine Journal [Internet]. Springer Science and Business Media LLC; 2015 Apr 22;24(8):1792–9. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-015-3942-x

Phelan EA, Deyo RA, Cherkin DC, Weinstein JN, Ciol MA, Kreuter W, et al. Helping Patients Decide About Back Surgery. Spine [Internet]. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health); 2001 Jan;26(2):206–12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200101150-00016

Lumbar spinal stenosis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment (meta-analysis of literature data)

Published

2018-03-07

How to Cite

1.
Fishchenko IV, Kravchuk LD, Perepechay OA. Lumbar spinal stenosis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment (meta-analysis of literature data). PMJUA [Internet]. 2018Mar.7 [cited 2020Oct.22];3(1):18-32. Available from: https://www.painmedicine.org.ua/index.php/pnmdcn/article/view/83